What Is Limited Capital?

What is limited capital, and how can it be used to build a successful business? Many people have great business ideas, but perhaps they lack the required financial power to execute those ideas. However, a lot of individuals have succeeded in business with little capital, and were able to spur themselves to success. To achieve this, an individual must be very determined and ready to make a few sacrifices along the way. Limited capital does not necessarily mean limited growth, limited achievement, and certainly not limited success.

The first and perhaps most important thing when starting a business with limited capital is for you to have a great product. Whether it is a physical product or a service, you must be confident about the product you're selling. When you are satisfied with the quality of the product you are selling, or the service which you are offering, you can be sure that your customers will be pleased as well. Your chosen product must transform people's lives one way or the other, and must get them coming back for more. Be assured, it is often those with limited funds to start a business venture who are often the most successful!

What is limited capital? Apart from having a good product, how do you overcome those limitations to start your dream business? Another great answer to this question is for you to consider partnering with another person of like mind. There are many people out there who do not have the time or patience to settle down and come up with great ideas like you do, but they might have some resources which you can tap in to. All you need is to package yourself and your ideas and approach them, and see if they would like to come on board. This is not to say that you might not need to do a bit of convincing, and have some follow-up before they decide to give you a try, but tenacity often pays off when all is said and done. You should also consider trying to get a small loan to boost your business and make it successful. However, you need to write up a very impressive business plan before you can get investors to put their money in your business. If you are able to get done what you want with the limited funds available to you, it is a good idea to avoid loans, since they often can become burdens.

What is limited capital? And what are the human qualities you must possess to overcome those limitations? First you must be very hardworking, ready to work for longer hours than usual. You must also be friendly and inviting. People will not work with you, or invest in you, if you are not lively and optimistic. When you have the ideas which you know will be successful in the market place, and yet they seem to be taking awhile to come to fruition, just remember that people such as Thomas Edison had to try dozens, and even hundreds, of different ideas before they were successful. We will forever be thankful that Edison did not give up on finding the right filament to make an efficient light bulb!

Source by Annie Whitney

Different Types of Stocks and Stock Markets

For a new investor, it is important to know the various kinds of stocks available in the market and the different markets in which they are traded, or the different stock markets.

There are two basic kinds of stocks:

1. Common Stocks
2. Preferred Stocks

A common stock is the "basic stock" of a company that is directly affected by the fluctuation in the profit and loss of the company. These stocks are also issued to the employees of the company. Although, high risk is associated with common stocks, they are also a vehicle for making high profit as there are no fixed dividends attached to them. After the common stocks, the preferred stocks are distributed to the chosen stakeholders. These stocks carry a fixed dividend associated with them that is paid at regular intervals to stakeholders. They can further be classified into A, B, and C categories having different prices, restrictions, and dividend amounts.

Preferred stockholders are paid their dividends much before the common stockholders are paid their profits. If due to some reason a company liquidates, its preferred stockholders get back their money, while common stockholders may not. However, there is less profit associated with preferred stocks.

Stock splits are issued by companies when there is a huge decrease in the demand for its stocks. Here, an investor is able to buy twice the value of stock for the same amount of money. With increased demand, there may be a reverse split, which is just the opposite of a stock split. However, there is no loss of money for the investor for both these kind of transactions.

The actual place where the trading of securities takes place is called a stock exchange. There are again two basic kinds of stock exchanges:

1. Physical Exchange: For example, NYSE and AMEX
2. Virtual / Online Exchange: For example, NASDAQ

The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) has been operational since 1792. It is located on the Wall Street, and has strict rules for companies to get listed. The NYSE lists big corporations, such as Coca-Cola, Wal-Mart, and General Electric. The NYSE is also known as an "auction market"; this is because investors bid for shares on the floor as in an auction and the share goes to the lowest bidder. It is believed, that the stocks on the NYSE are less volatile and more stable. The maximum listing fee for the exchange is $ 250,000 and the maximum continual yearly listing fee is $ 50,000.

The American Stock Exchange (AMEX) is another major physical exchange operating in Manhattan. AMEX's core business however lies with exchange -traded funds. In 1998, AMEX merged with the National Association of Securities Dealers (operators of NASDAQ) to form "The NASDAQ-Amex Market Group." The AMEX has liberal policies for listing, as compared to NYSE or NASDAQ. Some companies listed on AMEX are B & G Foods Holding Corp., Otelco Inc., etc.

For NASDAQ, trading is virtual or over the online network. Investors and stock traders deal and interact with each other virtually to buy and sell stocks over the Internet. Thus, a trading floor is non-existent for NASDAQ. NASDAQ lists "tech giants," such as Microsoft, Cisco, and Oracle. It is also known as a "dealer's market" as here, trading does not happen through auction but through a dealer who interacts with the buyers and sellers. The maximum listing fee for the exchange is $ 150,000 and the maximum continual yearly listing fee is $ 60,000. Thus, the stocks listed here are more "growth-oriented."

Source by Micheal James

Tribes In Kenya – Beautiful Or Ugly?

Kenya has more than 40 tribes. Their role is diminishing slowly, but the tribe is one of the main defining features of living in Kenya. On the one hand, everybody admires the sight of proud Masai warriors, dressed all red with their typical spears and shield. And tribes have social advantages, such as mutual help. On the other hand, the tribes in Kenya are holding the country back. This article provides some background information.

The Big Picture Of Tribes In Kenya

Family in Kenya is all-important. Big extended families live together and look after each other. Then comes your clan, your sub-tribe, and your tribe. Since Kenyan independence in 1963, the government has tried to create a national consciousness, stressing the idea that "we are all Kenyans". But as a result of the tribe system, national identity is very weak in Kenya.

Kenyan tribes are mainly based on language. There are three language groups in which all the tribes can be divided: the Bantu, the Nilotic and the Cushitic speaking tribes. Well-known tribes that still follow the traditional lifestyles as the Masai, Samburu and Turkana tribes are Nilotic. However, many Kenyans speak three languages: their tribal language, English, and Swahili (which together with English is the official language in Kenya).

The biggest tribes are, respectively, the Kikuyu, Luhya, Luo, Kalenjin and Kamba (although exact numbers differ widely from source to source).

Tribes In Kenya: Pretty Or Ugly?

Of course, I very much like to watch traditional tribal life. The Masai, Samburu, Turkana tribes people have magnificent colorful jewelry and clothes, impressive rituals, and beautiful songs. Experiencing this is for many one of the big reasons of coming to Kenya.

But let's be honest. How many of the tourists who idealize the tribes in Kenya would be able to live that way themselves? Tribes also mean a belief in witchcraft (and better avoid being called a witch in Kenya!), Female genital mutilation, and little individual freedom as the course of your whole life is already fixed at birth by tribal customs.

The "White Masai" movie has made this all too clear. It tells the real life story of a Swiss woman (Corinne Hofmann) who marries a Masai warrior and joins the traditional tribal life in his small village. During the first years, she shows a remarkable ability to adapt. She eats Masai food, sleeps in wooden shacks, and delivers their baby in the bush. But her husband feels increasingly threatened by her independence and abilities. When she opens a small shop in the village, he's jealous. He gets abusive and she finally has to flee with her daughter back to Switzerland.

Tribes In Kenya Business And Politics

Besides culture, tribes play a main role in business and politics. Tribe members 'help' each other, and this goes from, to favoritism in the government and covering each others criminal activities.

The Kikuyu dominate both business and politics. There are several reasons: they are the biggest tribe, have westernized to a big extent, are street-smart in business and the led the independence movement in the 1950s and 1960s. This independence movement became the first big political party, KANU, which dominated Kenyan politics for many decades.

The first president of Kenya, Jomo Kenyatta, as well as current president Mwai Kibaki are Kikuyu, and both have shown clear favoritism, if not outright corruption towards their tribesmen. Kenyatta used the land reforms after de departure of the British to make himself and his fellow clan members the biggest landowners of the country. Kibaki was elected in 2002 on the promise to end the ever-present corruption, but once in office did precious little to fight it. Instead, he adopted members of his Kikuyu clan throughout his administration. These people are known as the "Mount Kenya Maffia", after the home region of the Kikuyu around this mountain.

Many voters support a political candidate not because of his ideas or personal abilities, but because he's from the same tribe. Political parties are based on tribes, not on ideas. Elections often come down to the question: which tribe is going to exploit the other tribes? The election struggles of 2007-2008 in Kenya also had a tribal background: many non-Kikuyu voters thought that the Kikuyu (22% of the population) under had "eaten enough" (slang for stealing government funds) under the Kibaki government, and therefore supported a politician from the Luo tribe (Raila Odinga).

While some people in the west romanticize the tribal life, seeing this as a 'purer' lifestyle which is more social and 'closer to nature', I personally am happy that I'm not a part of it, and I believe many Kenyans would benefit from a gradual roll-back of the tribe system.

Source by Arjen Koopman

Role of Merchant Banking Services in Our Economy

Merchant banks found its origin in the early periods in the country of Italy by the Italian merchants. The main function of the merchant banking services include providing financial advice and services to corporate as well as individuals. These banks act as a sort of intermediary between capital issuers and the buyers of the securities. These securities are issued by different companies in the stock markets to raise funds.

The Necessity of Merchant Banking Services

The economy of the country is often afflicted with different unpredictable conditions like inflation, unemployment, stagnation and so forth. The need to sustain a steady growth is necessary for corporations and individuals which is possible only with a long term strategy and financial options. The merchant banking services provide solutions and financial options.

These banks provide advisor services to clients based on a particular fee. They also provide other financial services to mergers and clients. It is the only financial institute that invests its capital in the clients' company. It acts as an intermediary between those who possess capital and those who need capital.

To help their clients with a number of financial options, the merchant banking services operate in a number of countries all over the world. In this manner the clients have the opportunity to survey the different financial options to ensure better growth.

Functions of the Merchant Banking Services

These banks have a number of functions and some of the most important among them include:

  • Raise funds: one of the main functions of this banker includes helping the clients' company to raise funds from the markets. The banks help to manage equity offerings and debt. This function further includes underwriting support, pricing and marketing of the issue, stock exchange listing, allotment and refund, offer document registration and so forth.
  • Offer advisory services: these banks also offer advisory services to its clients for a proposed fee.
  • Security distribution: the functions of these banking services also include distribution of different types of securities like fixed deposits, equity shares, mutual fund products, commercial paper and debt instruments.
  • Aid in projects: these banks also provide aid in the projects undertaken by the clients by helping them to visualise the concept of the project. The feasibility of the project is also analysed by these banks. The clients are also given support to prepare project reports.
  • Overall financial reconstruction: the merchant banking services provide better financial options and solutions to the clients. They help the clients to raise funds through cheaper resources. With the aid of other financial institutions, these banks also help to revive the sick units of the clients' companies.
  • Offer advice on management of risks: another important function performed by these banks includes providing timely advice on risk management. The merchant banker provides advice on different strategies adopted by the clients.

Today the merchant banking services provide a number of other services like loan syndication, credit acceptance, counselling of mergers and acquisitions, management of portfolio and so forth. They also assist companies with short term liquidity funds. In a nutshell, these banking services are indispensable as they support individuals and corporate to expand their business ventures.

Source by Vaiv Jais

Using a Health Savings Account to Pay for Alternative Medicine

Health Savings Accounts allow you to set up a tax-deductible account to pay for medical expenses that are not covered by your health insurance. These include expenses to cover your deductible, and other medical expenses like dental and eyeglasses. But many do not realize that HSA funds can be used to pay for virtually any type of medical service, as long as it pertains to the treatment or prevention of a specific health condition.

Because money withdrawn from a health savings account to pay medical expenses is tax-free, anyone who has an HSA can funnel all alternative medical expenses through their HSA and get a tax write-off. This could include biofeedback, naturopathy, Ayurvedic medicine, aromatherapy, magnetic healing, reflexology, and the list goes on.

People who use complementary therapies are often very health conscious, and go to traditional physicians less often. So it does not make sense for them to be paying a high premium for a traditional health insurance plan with a co-pay, particularly when their medical treatments are not covered anyway. Instead, many are choosing a low cost high-deductible HSA plan.

Alternative Therapies Becoming Mainstream

Many hospitals are now offering complementary treatments. The website for the Memorial Sloan-Keating Cancer Center states that complementary therapies are used to "help alleviate stress, reduce pain and anxiety, manage symptoms, and promote a feeling of well-being."

Some group health insurance plans are beginning to cover more complementary expenses, but there is still very little coverage for these expenses in individual or family plans. Those that cover chiropractic limit coverage to 12 – 20 visits per year, and a few will cover a limited amount of acupuncture. But very few if any cover hypnotherapy, Reiki, iridology, or faith healers.

Why Complementary Medicine

The conventional medicine practiced by most MDs is called allopathic medicine. The philosophy of this system is to treat disease and injury using counteractive methods. For instance, if you have a fever you may take aspirin to make it go down, if your cholesterol is elevated you may take a statin to reduce it, if you have heartburn you may take an antacid. The thinking is mostly focused on removing the symptoms of disease, and the primary treatment modalities are surgery and prescription drugs.

But there are other ways to look at things. Naturopathic medicine is based on the belief in the body's own healing powers, which can be strengthened through the use of certain foods, vitamins, herbs, or other "natural" treatments. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is based on ancient Chinese theories about the balance of yin and yang. Ayurvedic medicine is based on principles of movement, metabolism, and structure.

Part of the growing use of complementary therapies is a reaction to the costs, side effects, and philosophy of conventional allopathic medicine. Physicians get much of their continuing education from the pharmaceutical industry, and they work in an environment where the insurers and the patients are both looking for a quick fix. The result is that the average 60 year old is now taking 5 regular medications, yet there is little expectation that those drugs will ever cure the health problems for which they're being used. Many consumers see this, and instead are using other methods to try to get to the root of their illness.

What is Considered an "HSA Qualified Expenses "

Qualified medical expenses have been partially defined in IRS Publication 502, and through various federal court rulings. There is no definitive list, but there are really very few restrictions as long as the procedure is for the treatment or prevention of a specific health condition. For instance, you could not use your HSA funds to pay for a relaxing massage for your own personal pleasure. But if your doctor recommends you get a massage for specific medical reasons, this is considered a qualified expense. Yoga would not normally be considered a qualified medical expense, but it would be if it was recommended as a physical therapy following some sort of accident.

Some may question why the government would give a tax deduction for someone to use some crazy energy vibration machine to cure their cancer. But this is as it should be. No one but you should be able to decide what type of treatment you will use for your own illnesses. By empowering individuals to manage their health as they see fit, Health Savings Accounts encourage personal responsibility and help loosen the monopoly on healthcare that conventional medicine has had for the past few decades.

Source by Wiley P Long

Globalisation And Primary Education Development In Tanzania: Prospects And Challenges

1. Overview of the Country and Primary Education System:
Tanzania covers 945,000 square kilometres, including approximately 60,000 square kilometres of inland water. The population is about 32 million people with an average annual growth rate of 2.8 percent per year. Females comprise 51% of the total population. The majority of the population resides on the Mainland, while the rest of the population resides in Zanzibar. The life expectancy is 50 years and the mortality rate is 8.8%. The economy depends upon Agriculture, Tourism, Manufacturing, Mining and Fishing. Agriculture contributes about 50% of GDP and accounting for about two-thirds of Tanzania's exports. Tourism contributes 15.8%; and manufacturing, 8.1% and mining, 1.7%. The school system is a 2-7-4-2-3 + consisting of pre-primary, primary school, ordinary level secondary education, Advanced level secondary, Technical and Higher Education. Primary School Education is compulsory whereby parents are supposed to take their children to school for enrollment. The medium of instruction in primary is Kiswahili.

One of the key objectives of the first president JK Nyerere was development strategy for Tanzania as reflected in the 1967 Arusha Declaration, which to be ensuring that basic social services were available equitably to all members of society. In the education sector, this goal was translated into the 1974 Universal Primary Education Movement, whose goal was to make primary education universally available, compulsory, and provided free of cost to users to ensure it reached the poorest. As the strategy was implemented, large-scale increases in the numbers of primary schools and teachers were brought about through campaign-style programs with the help of donor financing. By the beginning of the 1980s, each village in Tanzania had a primary school and gross primary school enrollment reached nearly 100 percent, although the quality of education provided was not very high. From 1996 the education sector proceeded through the launch and operation of Primary Education Development Plan – PEDP in 2001 to date.

2. Globalization
To different scholars, the definition of globalization may be different. According to Cheng (2000), it may refer to the transfer, adaptation, and development of values, knowledge, technology, and behavioral norms across countries and societies in different parts of the world. The typical phenomena and characteristics associated with globalization include growth of global networking (eg internet, world wide e-communication, and transportation), global transfer and interflow in technological, economic, social, political, cultural, and learning areas, international alliances and competitions , international collaboration and exchange, global village, multi-cultural integration, and use of international standards and benchmarks. See also Makule (2008) and MoEC (2000).

3. Globalization in Education
In education discipline globalization can mean the same as the above meanings as is concern, but most specifically all the key words directed in education matters. Dimmock & Walker (2005) argue that in a globalizing and internalizing world, it is not only business and industry that are changing, education, too, is caught up in that new order. This situation provides each nation a new empirical challenge of how to respond to this new order. Since this responsibility is within a national and that there is inequality in terms of economic level and perhaps in cultural variations in the world, globalization seems to affect others positively and the vice versa (Bush 2005). In most of developing countries, these forces come as imposing forces from the outside and are implemented unquestionably because they do not have enough resource to ensure its implementation (Arnove 2003; Crossley & Watson, 2004).

There is misinterpretation that globalization has no much impact on education because the traditional ways of delivering education is still persisting within a national state. But, it has been observed that while globalization continues to restructure the world economy, there are also powerful ideological packages that reshape education system in different ways (Carnoy, 1999; Carnoy & Rhoten, 2002). While others seem to increase access, equity and quality in education, others affect the nature of educational management. Bush (2005) and Lauglo (1997) observe that decentralization of education is one of the global trends in the world which enable to reform educational leadership and management at different levels. They also argue that Decentralization forces help different level of educational management to have power of decision making related to the allocation of resources. Carnoy (1999) further portrays that the global ideologies and economic changes are increasingly intertwined in the international institutions that broadcast particular strategies for educational change. These include western governments, multilateral and bilateral development agencies and NGOs (Crossley & Watson 2004). Also these agencies are the ones which develop global policies and transfer them through funds, conferences and other means. Certainly, with these powerful forces education reforms and to be more specifically, the current reforms on school leadership to a large extent are influenced by globalization.

4. The School Leadership
In Tanzania the leadership and management of education systems and processes is increasingly seen as one area where improvement can and need to be made in order to ensure that education is delivered not only efficiently but also efficaciously. Although literatures for education leadership in Tanzania are inadequate, Komba in EdQual (2006) pointed out that research in various aspects of leadership and management of education, such as the structures and delivery stems of education; financing and alternative sources of support to education; preparation, nurturing and professional development of education leaders; the role of female educational leaders in improvement of educational quality; as will as the link between education and poverty eradication, are deemed necessary in approaching issues of educational quality in any sense and at any level. The nature of out of school factors that may render support to the quality of education eg traditional leadership institutions may also need to be looked into.

5. Impact of Globalization
As mentioned above, globalization is creating numerous opportunities for sharing knowledge, technology, social values, and behavioral norms and promoting developments at different levels including individuals, organizations, communities, and societies across different countries and cultures. Cheng (2000); Brown, (1999); Waters, (1995) pointed out the advantages of globalization as follows: Firstly it enable global sharing of knowledge, skills, and intellectual assets that are necessary to multiple developments at different levels. The second is the mutual support, supplement and benefit to produce synergy for various developments of countries, communities, and individuals. The third positive impact is creation of values ​​and enhancing efficiency through the above global sharing and mutual support to serving local needs and growth. The fourth is the promotion of international understanding, collaboration, harmony and acceptance to cultural diversity across countries and regions. The fifth is facilitating multi-way communications and interactions, and encouraging multi-cultural contributions at different levels among countries.

The potential negative impacts of globalization are educationally concerned in various types of political, economic, and cultural colonization and overwhelming influences of advanced countries to developing countries and rapidly increasing gaps between rich areas and poor areas in different parts of the world. The first impact is increasing the technological gaps and digital divides between advanced countries and less developed countries that are hindering equal opportunities for fair global sharing. The second is creation of more legitimate opportunities for a few advanced countries to economically and politically colonize other countries globally. Thirdly is exploitation of local resources which destroy indigenous cultures of less advanced countries to benefit a few advanced countries. Fourthly is the increase of inequalities and conflicts between areas and cultures. And fifthly is the promotion of the dominant cultures and values ​​of some advanced areas and accelerating cultural transplant from advanced areas to less developed areas.

The management and control of the impacts of globalization are related to some complicated macro and international issues that may be far beyond the scope of which I did not include in this paper. Cheng (2002) pointed out that in general, many people believe, education is one of key local factors that can be used to moderate some impacts of globalization from negative to positive and convert threats into opportunities for the development of individuals and local community in the inevitable process of globalization. How to maximize the positive effects but minimize the negative impacts of globalization is a major concern in current educational reform for national and local developments.

6. Globalization of Education and Multiple Theories
The thought of writing this paper was influenced by the multiple theories propounded by Yin Cheng, (2002). He proposed a typology of multiple theories that can be used to conceptualize and practice fostering local knowledge in globalization particularly through globalized education. These theories of fostering local knowledge is proposed to address this key concern, namely as the theory of tree, theory of crystal, theory of birdcage, theory of DNA, theory of fungus, and theory of amoeba. Their implications for design of curriculum and instruction and their expected educational outcomes in globalized education are correspondingly different.

The theory of tree assumes that the process of fostering local knowledge should have its roots in local values ​​and traditions but absorb external useful and relevant resources from the global knowledge system to grow the whole local knowledge system inwards and outwards. The expected outcome in globalized education will be to develop a local person with international outlook, who will act locally and develop globally. The strength of this theory is that the local community can maintain and even further develop its traditional values ​​and cultural identity as it grows and interacts with the input of external resources and energy in accumulating local knowledge for local developments.

The theory of crystal is the key of the fostering process to have "local seeds" to crystallize and accumulate the global knowledge along a given local expectation and demand. Therefore, fostering local knowledge is to accumulate global knowledge around some "local seeds" that may be to exist local demands and values ​​to be fulfilled in these years. According to this theory, the design of curriculum and instruction is to identify the core local needs and values ​​as the fundamental seeds to accumulate those relevant global knowledge and resources for education. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person who remains a local person with some global knowledge and can act locally and think locally with increasing global techniques. With local seeds to crystallize the global knowledge, there will be no conflict between local needs and the external knowledge to be absorbed and accumulated in the development of local community and individuals.

The theory of birdcage is about how to avoid the overwhelming and dominating global influences on the nation or local community. This theory contends that the process of fostering local knowledge can be open for incoming global knowledge and resources but at the same time efforts should be made to limit or converge the local developments and related interactions with the outside world to a fixed framework. In globalized education, it is necessary to set up a framework with clear ideological boundaries and social norms for curriculum design such that all educational activities can have a clear local focus when benefiting from the exposure of wide global knowledge and inputs. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person with bounded global outlook, who can act locally with filtered global knowledge. The theory can help to ensure local relevance in globalized education and avoid any loss of local identity and concerns during globalization or international exposure.

The theory of DNA represents numerous initiatives and reforms have made to remove dysfunctional local traditions and structures in country of periphery and replace them with new ideas borrowed from core countries. This theory emphasizes on identifying and transplanting the better key elements from the global knowledge to replace the existing weaker local components in the local developments. In globalizing education, the curriculum design should be very selective to both local and global knowledge with aims to choose the best elements from them. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person with locally and globally mixed elements, who can act and think with mixed local and global knowledge. The strength of this theory is its openness for any rational investigation and transplant of valid knowledge and elements without any local barrier or cultural burden. It can provide an efficient way to learn and improve the existing local practices and developments.

The theory of fungus reflects the mode of fostering local knowledge in globalization. This theory assumes that it is a faster and easier way to digest and absorb certain relevant types of global knowledge for nutrition of individual and local developments, than to create their own local knowledge from the beginning. From this theory, the curriculum and instruction should aim at enabling students to identify and learn what global knowledge is valuable and necessary to their own developments as well as significant to the local community. In globalizing education, the design of education activities should aim at digesting the complex global knowledge into appropriate forms that can feed the needs of individuals and their growth. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person equipped certain types of global knowledge, who can act and think dependently of relevant global knowledge and wisdom. Strengths of the theory is for some small countries, easily digest and absorb the useful elements of global knowledge than to produce their own local knowledge from the beginning. The roots for growth and development are based on the global knowledge instead of local culture or value.

The theory of amoeba is about the adaptation to the fasting changing global environment and the economic survival in serious international competitions. This theory considers that fostering local knowledge is only a process to fully use and accumulate global knowledge in the local context. Whether the accumulated knowledge is really local or the local values ​​can be preserved is not a major concern. According to this theory, the curriculum design should include the full range of global perspectives and knowledge to totally globalize education in order to maximize the benefit from global knowledge and become more adaptive to changing environment. Therefore, to achieve broad international outlook and apply global knowledge locally and globally is crucial in education. And, cultural burdens and local values ​​can be minimized in the design of curriculum and instruction in order to let students be totally open for global learning. The expected educational outcome is to develop a flexible and open person without any local identity, who can act and think globally and fluidly. The strengths of this theory are also its limitations particularly in some culturally fruit countries. There will be potential loss of local values ​​and cultural identity in the country and the local community will potentially lose its direction and social solidarity during overwhelming globalization.

Each country or local community may have its unique social, economic and cultural contexts and therefore, its tendency to using one theory or a combination of theories from the typology in globalized education may be different from the other. To a great extent, it is difficult to say one is better than other even though the theories of tree, birdcage and crystal may be more preferred in some culturally rich countries. For those countries with less cultural assets or local values, the theories of amoeba and fungus may be an appropriate choice for development. However, this typology can provide a wide spectrum of alternatives for policy-makers and educators to conceptualize and formulate their strategies and practices in fostering local knowledge for the local developments. See more about the theories in Cheng (2002; 11-18)

7. Education Progress since Independence in Tanzania
During the first phase of Tanzania political governance (1961-1985) the Arusha Declaration, focusing on "Ujamaa" (African socialism) and self-reliance was the major philosophy. The nationalization of the production and provision of goods and services by the state and the dominance of ruling party in community mobilization and participation highlighted the "Ujamaa" ideology, which dominated most of the 1967-1985 eras. In early 1970s, the first phase government embarked on an enormous national campaign for universal access to primary education, of all children of school going age. It was resolved that the nation should have attained universal primary education by 1977. The ruling party by that time Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), under the leadership of the former and first president of Tanzania Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere, directed the government to put in place mechanisms for ensuring that the directive, commonly known as the Musoma Resolution, was implemented. The argument behind that move was essentially that, as much as education was a right to each and every citizen, a government that is committed to the development of an egalitarian socialist society can not segregate and discriminate her people in the provision of education, especially at the basic level.

7.1. The Presidential Commission on Education
In 1981, a Presidential Commission on education was appointed to review the existing system of education and propose necessary changes to be realized by the country towards the year 2000. The Commission submitted its report in March 1982 and the government has implemented most of its recommendation. The most significant ones related to this paper were the establishment of the Teachers' Service Commission (TSC), the Tanzania Professional Teachers Association, the introduction of new curriculum packages at primary, secondary and teacher education levels, the establishment of the Faculty of Education ( FoE) at the University of Dar-es-Salaam, the introduction of pre-primary teacher education programme; and the expansion of secondary education.

7.2. Education during the Second Phase Government of Tanzania
The second phase government of Tanzania spanning from 1985 to 1995, was characterized by new liberal ideas such as free choice, market-oriented schooling and cost efficiency, reduced the government control of the UPE and other social services. The education sector lacked quality teachers as well as teaching / learning materials and infrastructure to address the expansion of the UPE. A vacuum was created while fragmented donor driven projects dominated primary education support. The introduced cost sharing in the provision of social services like education and health hit most the poorest of the poor. This decrease in government support in the provision of social services including education as well as cost-sharing policies were not taken well, given that most of the incomes were below the poverty line. In 1990, the government constituted a National Task Force on education to review the existing education system and recommend a suitable education system for the 21st century.

The report of this task force, the Tanzania Education System for the 21st Century, was submitted to the government in November 1992. Recommendations of the report have been taken into consideration in the formulation of the Tanzania Education and Training Policy (TETP). In spite of the very impressive expansionary education policies and reforms in the 1970s, the goal to achieve UPE, which was once targeted for achievement in 1980, is way out of reach. Similarly, the Jomtien objective to achieve Basic Education for all in 2000 is on the part of Tanzania unrealistic. The participation and access level have declined to the point that attainment of UPE is once again an issue in itself. Other developments and trends indicate a decline in the quantitative goals set rather than being closer to them (Cooksey and Reidmiller, 1997; Mbilinyi, 2000). At the same time serious doubt is being raised about school quality and relevance of education provided (Galabawa, Senkoro and Lwaitama, (eds), 2000).

7.3. Outcomes of UPE
According to Galabawa (2001), the UPE describing, analysis and discussing explored three measures in Tanzania: (1) the measure of access to first year of primary education namely, the apparent intake rate. This is based on the total number of new entrants in the first grade regardless of age. This number is in turn expressed as a percentage of the population at the official primary school entrance age and the net intake rate based on the number of new entrants in the first grade who are of the official primary school entrance age expressed as percentage of the population of corresponding age. (2) The measure of participation, namely, gross enrolment ratio representing the number of children enrolled in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the official primary school age population; while the net enrolment ratio corresponds to the number of children of the official primary school age enrolled in primary school expressed as a percentage of corresponding population. (3) The measure of internal efficiency of education system, which reflect the dynamics of different operational decision making events over the school cycle like dropouts, promotions and repetitions.

7.3.1. Access to Primary Education
The absolute numbers of new entrants to grade one of primary school cycles have grown steadily since 1970s. The number of new entrants increased from around 400,000 in 1975 to 617,000 in 1990 and to 851,743 in 2000, a rise of 212.9 percent in relative terms. The apparent (gross) intake rate was high at around 80% in the 1970s dropping to 70% in 1975 and rise up to 77% in 2000. This level reflects the shortcomings in primary education provision. Tanzania is marked by wide variations in both apparent and net intake rates-between urban and rural districts with former performing higher. Low intake rates in rural areas reflect the fact that many children do not enter schools at the official age of seven years.

7.3.2. Participation in Primary Education
The regression in the gross and net primary school enrolment ratios; the exceptionally low intake at secondary and vocational levels; and, the general low internal efficiency of the education sector have combined to create a UPE crisis in Tanzania's education system (Education Status Report, 2001). There were 3,161,079 primary pupils in Tanzania in 1985 and, in the subsequent decade primary enrolment rose dramatically by 30% to 4,112,167 in 1999. These absolute increases were not translated into gross / net enrolment rates, which actually experienced a decline threatening the sustainability of quantitative gains. The gross enrolment rate, which was 35.1% in late 1960's and early 1970s', grew appreciably to 98.0% in 1980 when the net enrolment rate was 68%. (Ibid)

7.3.3. Internal Efficiency in Primary Education
The input / output ratio shows that it takes an average of 9.4 years (instead of planned 7 years) for a pupil to complete primary education. The extra years are due to starting late, drop-outs, repetition and high failure rate which is pronounced at standard four where a competency / mastery examination is administered (ESDP, 1999, p.84). The drive towards UPE has been hampered by high wastage rates.

7.4. Education during the Third Phase Government of Tanzania
The third phase government spanning the period from 1995 to date, intends to address both income and non-income poverty so as to generate capacity for provision and consumption of better social services. In order to address these income and non-income poverty the government formed the Tanzania Vision 2025. Vision 2025 targets at high quality livelihood for all Tanzanians through the realization of UPE, the eradication of illiteracy and the attainment of a level of tertiary education and training commensurate with a critical mass of high quality human resources required to effectively respond to the developmental challenges at all level. In order to revitalize the whole education system the government established the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP) in this period. Within the ESDP, there two education development plans already in implementation, namely: (a) The Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP); and (b) The Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP).

8. Prospects and Challenges of Primary of Education Sector
Since independence, The government has recognised the central role of education in achieving the overall development goal of improving the quality of life of Tanzanians through economic growth and poverty reduction. Several policies and structural reforms have been initiated by the Government to improve the quality of education at all levels. These include: Education for Self-Reliance, 1967; Musoma Resolution, 1974; Universal Primary Education (UPE), 1977; Education and Training Policy (ETP), 1995; National Science and Technology Policy, 1995; Technical Education and Training Policy, 1996; Education Sector Development Programme, 1996 and National Higher Education Policy, 1999. The ESDP of 1996 represented for the first time a Sector-Wide Approach to education development to redress the problem of fragmented interventions. It called for pooling together of resources (human, financial and materials) through the involvement of all key stakeholders in education planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation (URT, 1998 quoted in MoEC 2005b). The Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP) provided the institutional framework.

Challenges include the considerable shortage of classrooms, a shortage of well qualified and expert teachers competent to lead their learners through the new competency based curriculum and learning styles, and the absence of an assessment and examination regime able to reinforce the new approaches and reward students for their ability to demonstrate what they know understand and can do. At secondary level there is a need to expand facilities necessary as a result of increased transition rates. A major challenge is the funding gap, but the government is calling on its development partners to honour the commitments made at Dakar, Abuja, etc, to respond positively to its draft Ten Year Plan. A number of systemic changes are at a critical stage, including decentralisation, public service reform, strengthening of financial management and mainstreaming of ongoing project and programmes. The various measures and interventions introduced over the last few years have been uncoordinated and unsynchronised. Commitment to a sector wide approach needs to be accompanied by careful attention to secure coherence and synergy across sub-sectoral elements. (Woods, 2007).

9. Education and School Leadership in Tanzania and the Impacts
Education and leadership in primary education sector in Tanzania has passed through various periods as explained in the stages above. The school leadership major reformation was maintained and more decentralized in the implementation of the PEDP from the year 2000 to date. This paper is also more concerned with the implementation of globalization driven policies that influence the subjectivity of education changes. It is changing to receive what Tjeldvoll et al. (2004: 1; quoted in Makule, 2008) considers as "the new managerial responsibilities". These responsibilities are focused to increase accountability, equity and quality in education which are global agenda, because it is through these, the global demands in education will be achieved. In that case school leadership in Tanzania has changed. The change observed is due to the implementation of decentralization of both power and fund to the low levels such as schools. School leadership now has more autonomy over the resources allocated to school than it was before decentralization. It also involves community in all the issues concerning the school improvement.

10. Prospects and Challenges of School Leadership

10.1. Prospects
The decentralization of both power and funds from the central level to the low level of education such as school and community brought about various opportunities. Openness, community participation and improved efficiency mentioned as among the opportunities obtained with the current changes on school leadership. There is improved accountability, capacity building and educational access to the current changes on school leadership. This is viewed in strong communication network established in most of the schools in the country. Makule (2008) in her study found out that the network was effective where every head teacher has to send to the district various school reports such as monthly report, three month report, half a year report, nine month report and one year report. In each report there is a special form in which a head teacher has to feel information about school. The form therefore, give account of activities that takes place at school such as information about the uses of the funds and the information about attendance both teacher and students, school buildings, school assets, meetings, academic report, and school achievement and problems encountered. The effect of globalization forces on school leadership in Tanzania has in turn forced the government to provide training and workshop for school leadership (MoEC, 2005b). The availability of school leadership training, whether through workshop or training course, considered to be among the opportunities available for school leadership in Tanzania

10.2. Challenges
Like all countries, Tanzania is bracing itself for a new century in every respect. The dawn of the new millennium brings in new changes and challenges of all sectors. The Education and Training sector has not been spared for these challenges. This is, particularly important in recognition of adverse/implications of globalisation for developing states including Tanzania. For example, in the case of Tanzania, globalisation entails the risks of increased dependence and marginalisation and thus human resource development needs to play a central role to redress the situation. Specifically, the challenges include the globalisation challenges, access and equity, inclusive or special needs education, institutional capacity building and the HIV/aids challenge.

11. Conclusion
There are five types of local knowledge and wisdom to be pursued in globalized education, including the economic and technical knowledge, human and social knowledge, political knowledge, cultural knowledge, and educational knowledge for the developments of individuals, school institutions, communities, and the society. Although globalisation is linked to a number of technological and other changes which have helped to link the world more closely, there are also ideological elements which have strongly influenced its development. A "free market" dogma has emerged which exaggerates both the wisdom and role of markets, and of the actors in those markets, in the organisation of human society. Fashioning a strategy for responsible globalisation requires an analysis which separates that which is dogma from that which is inevitable. Otherwise, globalisation is an all too convenient excuse and explanation for anti-social policies and actions including education which undermine progress and break down community. Globalisation as we know it has profound social and political implications. It can bring the threat of exclusion for a large portion of the world's population, severe problems of unemployment, and growing wage and income disparities. It makes it more and more difficult to deal with economic policy or corporate behaviour on a purely national basis. It also has brought a certain loss of control by democratic institutions of development and economic policy.

Source by Eugene Shayo

Easy Short Term Loans For Small Businesses

Let's assume you have just started a new venture and plan to expand in the later stage. The scope of expenses is not just One Dimensional, and therefore cash flow becomes essential. The financial situation these days is a bit dicey, and starting the business venture needs money. Arranging the money from loans is possible, but it is also necessary to evaluate the reasons for securing the line of credit. The credit line should match your requirements.

Since, you are eager to acquire funds for a smaller period, one option you can consider applying is the easy Short Term loans. This credit line is convenient to obtain and can be utilised as a working capital. At least, it provides a set amount of cash that can be repaid in form of instalments. The funding at best seems perfect to tackle the small business expenses.

Banks and financial institutions offer these loans through a much traditional and hard defined approach. However, it is easy to secure Short Term loans from private lenders. The easy accessibility with instant approval is perhaps one of the reasons for these loans being popular among the entrepreneurs.

Short Term Loans for New Age Businesses

Short term loans follow an ideal approach for small businesses, who struggle to cover their basic expenses in the midst of a financial doldrums. The cash line of credit is quick, and this reduces the stress much to an extent. There is also no hurry of repaying the loan. With quick cash credit available, entrepreneurs will make decisions on procuring raw materials, arranging transportation of finished goods, clearing dues, paying rent, expanding the product line etc.

In case your business is struggling with poor credit issues, opting for a Long terms loans can certainly help in improving the credit score. As the repayment tenure spans over a period of few month, by keeping up with the payments, it will increase the score. With a much improved credit score, you now have a chance to access new loans at more favorable terms.

Higher Interest Rates are a matter of concern

The most important aspect that you look at while approaching broker is the rate of interest and the APR. And in the case of shorts term loans, the interest rate is charged on the principle amount. As the loan amount is being utilized for commercial purposes, you can expect high rate of interest. But then, it also comes down to how much amount you are looking to borrow as well as the repayment tenure? There are times, when it becomes tough to keep up with the payments, and this certainly affects your business to a serious extent. Moreover with the funding easily accessible, small business owners get in to habit of deriving the loans on a regular basis. This in turn affects the profit and the businesses end up spending more than what they actually earn.

Not all loans are meant to serve your needs and easy short terms loans are no different. Yes, it is good for entrepreneurs who are starting out, who need access to easy funds on a regular basis. But then the loans have drawbacks too and all the factors must be assessed, before making any decision on accessing the loans.

Source by Angela Albert

Terminal Wealth Dispersion, Life Expectancy and Individual Retirement Accounts

Terminal wealth dispersion is the technical term that describes the variability of the future value of investment portfolios. This inevitable variability means that no one knows what the value of their investment portfolio will be when they reach retirement age or at any time during their retirement. And the uncertainty of individual's life expectancies compounds this problem.

Hedging against the risks associated with these two factors places an onerous burden on individuals. Although this hedging could result in a very comfortable retirement, if one can afford the hedge and their timing is right, the potential downside risk is so great that it may be deemed unacceptable by many individuals. So one has to ask "Do individuals really prefer to forgo a sure but modest retirement income and play the odds with their retirement savings in hopes of being very well off in retirement?"

With individual accounts, individuals lose the benefit of the pooling of risks. The two risks that force individuals to over-save are investment risk and the risk of living beyond the average life expectancy. In both cases the outcomes, terminal wealth and life span, are highly variable. When the risks are pooled for a large number of individuals over many overlapping life spans, the average outcomes are highly predictable, which is what makes traditional pension plans work so well.

Traditional pension plans exist, for all intents and purposes, in perpetuity. This being the case, they can build reserves during good times in the financial markets and weather the bad times, thus enabling them to make consistent payouts to retirees regardless of the timing of their retirement. Unfortunately, individuals do not get to choose their holding periods or the years of their retirement and must take whatever comes along, and what comes along might be good or it might be bad. Thus individuals must set savings goals that are sufficiently high to hedge against the risk of the average return of an investment portfolio over its holding period falling well short of that which would be expected very long term.

The relatively short duration of individual's holding periods leave them very susceptible to the effects of market cycles, which are notoriously unpredictable in amplitude and frequency. Being broadly diversified mitigates this risk but does not eliminate it, as it's entirely possible for a worldwide bear market to occur during one's holding period. Then at the end of the holding period for wealth accumulation, a second holding period begins, which will be the term of retirement, and this second holding period carries the same risks as the first, but at a time in life when there is no source of income to make up for portfolio under-performance.

The other component of risk that individuals must hedge is the risk represented by the uncertainty of one's life span, which means that individuals must aim even higher when setting their savings goals. The managers of large pension plans can depend on retirees living on average for only the average life expectancy of employees who reach retirement age. The average life expectancy for someone who reaches the age of 66 is currently 82 years, and 66 is currently the age when workers are eligible for full Social Security benefits, which makes it a reasonable baseline. Based on those assumptions, the average term of retirement would be 18 years and pension plans should only have to be funded to the extent necessary to cover the cost of this average term of retirement.

Individuals, however, do not know how long they're going to live, so they must over-save to ensure that they do not run out of money before they run out of time. This need to over-save is independent of the first need, thus the need to over-save is compounded, ie, an individual needs to save enough to cover the cost of living well beyond the average life expectancy and the targeted amount of savings at retirement age must be great enough to ensure with a reasonably high level of certainty that the actual amount on hand at retirement is at least the bare minimum necessary to get by on.

A popular estimate of the term of retirement for which individuals must plan is 30 years. Saving enough to cover the cost of a 30-year retirement is a much greater burden than saving for an 18-year retirement, but planning on a shorter retirement exposes individuals to tremendous risk. It also exposes taxpayers to tremendous risk, as individuals who outlive their savings will undoubtedly require some form of public assistance to make ends meet and are likely to become wards of the state when they become physically incapable of caring for themselves.

An individual who bases their retirement saving on living to the age of 96 but only lives to be 82 will have forgone a lot of pleasures in life, such as travel, fine dining and better vehicles, that they could otherwise have enjoyed. But many individuals just do not have the level of income required to support the saving rate necessary to amass the wealth required to hedge against the downside of terminal wealth dispersion and the possibility of living well past the average life expectancy. For them it's not a matter of forgone consumption, it's a matter of going through life with the knowledge that they are likely to spend their golden years living in abject poverty and that that will be their reward for 40 or 50 years of hard work. And it gets worse!

Some economists now believe that within 15 years or so, given the current rate of health care inflation, 100% of Social Security benefits will be spent on medical expenses: Medicare Parts B and D premiums, copayments, uncovered expenses and medigap insurance premiums. If that becomes the case, anyone without substantial savings or a defined benefit pension will be looking for public assistance the day after they retire. Although this is probably a worse case scenario, there is a general consensus that individuals retiring today will need to set aside approximately $ 180,000 for medical expenses not covered by basic Medicare.

With the situation already at this state, adding private Social Security accounts to the mix would be like throwing gas on a fire, as individual Social Security accounts carry the same risks as other individual retirement accounts. Those who have tried to kill Social Security since its inception find private accounts very appealing. But, not so coincidentally, most of them seem to be in the enviable position of not needing Social Security to support their retirement. More recently, younger workers, too, have come to oppose Social Security, but not for the same reason as the traditional opponents. Young workers may be crushed by the growing burden of Social Security and may never receive any benefits from the system. Those who oppose Social Security simply because it's a social program should be expending their efforts on reforming it rather than killing it.

If Social Security had been managed like a pension plan rather than the ilconceived system it is, with today's workers paying for yesterday's workers' retirement, its current situation would not be so dire. Indeed, it might very well be a fully funded, functional system. CalPERS and other large public employee retirement plans have operated successfully for decades, with success being defined as being able to meet their obligations, not having an adverse effect on the financial markets, no scandalous events attributable to malfeasance by the plans' sponsors and being free of influence from elected officials. There's no reason that Social Security can not also be managed in such a manner. It would literally take an act of Congress to do this, but the hardest part for Congress would be letting the system run without their interfering with its operation.

Passing off the burden of retirement to individuals was a great deal for corporations but it's a very poor deal for most individuals, and extending individual accounts to include the Social Security system would only make a bad situation worse. It's not a poor deal for all individuals because there will be some who can afford to save a substantial portion of their income and whose holding periods will coincide with bull markets, thus putting their wealth in the upper range of their terminal wealth dispersion, and who also live a long, healthy life. They will be the ones who benefit from over-saving and living beyond the average life expectancy, but they may end up forfeiting a portion of their wealth in the form of taxes to support the less fortunate. I do not believe that is what the public expects from a well-conceived system.

Source by Mike Kennedy

Global Financing – Hard and Soft Currency

Global financing and exchange rates are major topics when considering a venturing business abroad. In the proceeding I will explain in detail what hard and soft currencies are. I will then go into detail explaining the reasoning for the fluctuating currencies. Finally I will explain hard and soft currencies importance in managing risks.

Hard currency

Hard currency is usually from a highly industrialized country that is widely accepted around the world as a form of payment for goods and services. A hard currency is expected to remain relatively stable through a short period of time, and to be highly liquid in the forex market. Another criterion for a hard currency is that the currency must come from a politically and economically stable country. The US dollar and the British pound are good examples of hard currencies (Investopedia, 2008). Hard currency basically means that the currency is strong. The terms strong and weak, rising and falling, strengthening and weakening are relative terms in the world of foreign exchange (sometimes referred to as "forex"). Rising and falling, strengthening and weakening all indicate a relative change in position from a previous level. When the dollar is "strengthening," its value is rising in relation to one or more other currencies. A strong dollar will buy more units of a foreign currency than previously. One result of a stronger dollar is that the prices of foreign goods and services drop for US consumers. This may allow Americans to take the long-postponed vacation to another country, or buy a foreign car that used to be too expensive. US consumers' benefit from a strong dollar, but US exporters is hurt. A strong dollar means that it takes more of a foreign currency to buy US dollars. US goods and services become more expensive for foreign consumers who, as a result, tend to buy fewer US products. Because it takes more of a foreign currency to purchase strong dollars, products priced in dollars are more expensive when sold overseas (chicagofed, 2008).

Soft currency

Soft currency is another name for "weak currency". The values ​​of soft currencies fluctuate often, and other countries do not want to hold these currencies due to political or economic uncertainty within the country with the soft currency. Currencies from most developing countries are considered to be soft currencies. Often, governments from these developing countries will set unrealistically high exchange rates, pegging their currency to a currency such as the US dollar (invest words, 2008). Soft currency breaks down to the currency being very weak, an example of this would be the Mexican peso. A weak dollar also hurts some people and benefits others. When the value of the dollar falls or weakens in relation to another currency, prices of goods and services from that country rise for US consumers. It takes more dollars to purchase the same amount of foreign currency to buy goods and services. That means US consumers and US companies that import products have reduced purchasing power. At the same time, a weak dollar means prices for US products fall in foreign markets, benefiting US exporters and foreign consumers. With a weak dollar, it takes fewer units of foreign currency to buy the right amount of dollars to purchase US goods. As a result, consumers in other countries can buy US products with less money.

Fluctuating currencies

Many things can contribute to the fluctuation of currency. A few are as follows for strong and weak currency:

Factors Contributing to a Strong Currency
Higher interest rates in home country than abroad
Lower rates of inflation
A domestic trade surplus relative to other countries
A large, consistent government deficit crowding out domestic borrowing
Political or military unrest in other countries
A strong domestic financial market
Strong domestic economy / weaker foreign economies
No record of default on government debt
Sound monetary policy aimed at price stability.
Factors Contributing to a Weak Currency
Lower interest rates in home country than abroad
Higher rates of inflation
A domestic trade deficit relative to other countries
A consistent government surplus
Relative political / military stability in other countries
A collapsing domestic financial market
Weak domestic economy / stronger foreign economies
Frequent or recent default on government debt
Monetary policy that frequently changes objectives

Importance on managing risk

When venturing abroad there are many risk factors that must be addressed, and keeping these factors in check is crucial to a companies success. Economic risk can be broadly summarized as a series of macroeconomic events that might impair the enjoyment of expected earnings of any investment. Some analysts further segment economic risk into financial factors (those factors leading to inconvertibility of currencies, such as foreign indebtedness or current account deficits and so forth) and economic factors (factors such as government finances, inflation, and other economic factors that may lead to higher and sudden taxation or desperate government imposed restrictions on foreign investors 'or creditors' rights). Altagroup, 2008. The decisions of businesses to invest in another country can have a significant effect on their domestic economy. In the case of the US, the desire of foreign investors to hold dollar-denominated assets helped finance the US government's large budget deficit and supplied funds to private credit markets. According to the laws of supply and demand, an increased supply of funds – in this case funds provided by other countries – tends to lower the price of those funds. The price of funds is the interest rate. The increase in the supply of funds extended by foreign investors helped finance the budget deficit and helped keep interest rates below what they would have been without foreign capital. A strong currency can have both a positive and a negative impact on a nation's economy. The same holds true for a weak currency. Currencies that are too strong or too weak not only affect individual economies, but tend to distort international trade and economic and political decisions worldwide.


Hard currency is usually from a highly industrialized country that is widely accepted around the world as a form of payment for goods and services. A hard currency is expected to remain relatively stable through a short period of time, and to be highly liquid in the forex market. Soft currency is another name for "weak currency". The values ​​of soft currencies fluctuate often, and other countries do not want to hold these currencies due to political or economic uncertainty within the country with the soft currency. Many things can contribute to the fluctuation of currency; a few of these things are inflation, strong financial market, and political or military unrest. The decisions of businesses to invest in another country can have a significant effect on their domestic economy. In the case of the US, the desire of foreign investors to hold dollar-denominated assets helped finance the US government's large budget deficit and supplied funds to private credit markets.

Source by Rob Zillla

Buy and Sell Crude Oil – Most Profitable Way to Do It

There is a profitable way to buy and sell petroleum. There are four major things you will need in order to succeed from this business. They are namely:

1. Funds: you will need funds to buy petroleum. You will need a minimum of $ 100,000,000 US. The amount of money can get you up to 2 million barrels of petroleum. You will also need about 5 to 10 million USD for expenses.
2. Petroleum seller: you will need a crude oil seller or supplier where you can purchase the petroleum from. This one is not a major problem as long as you have the funds.
3. Tanker: you will need a tank where you will be able to store the crude oil. If you want to build a petroleum storage tank, then you may as well rent one. This one is going to be costly, so it is better for you to build your own tank and save cost.
4. Petroleum buyer: this one is also not a major problem. The reason is because they are many buyers of crude oil aggressively searching for available crude oil to buy mainly in USA and Europe. As long as cars and factories are concerned, crude oil will always be in high demand.

The idea to make lots of money from buying and selling crude oil is to buy crude when it is very cheap and sell it when it is expensive. That is you will buy it when the price is low and sell it when the price is high. You will need to buy a piece of land and build the crude oil storage tank that can be able to store as much crude oil as you want. The crude oil storage tank could be an underground tank or surface tank.

Once you have finished building a storage tank, the next step is to buy petroleum. If you have funds at hand building storage tanks that can store up to 2 million barrels of petroleum or as much as you want will not take more than 2 months. The next step is to find petroleum available for sale. This will be an easy process if you know where to look. You can start to source for crude oil available for purchase at oil producing countries. You will be able to buy them through this means for cheap rather than when you do so through resellers.

There are two ways to get petroleum from Nigeria. One is through getting oil allocation from NNPC. NNPC fully means Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation. It is a government agency responsible for selling and buying of crude oil. You will need:
1. Proof of up to $ 100,000,000
2. Performance bond of up to $ 1,000,000
3. You will be required to own a local oil refinery, international refinery and a major oil trader.

If you are not ready for these conditions, then you can buy from persons who have already gotten oil allocation. People who have got oil allocation from NNPC must always end up selling the petroleum they have purchased. You can buy from this set of people. Example of this type of oil trader to buy your crude oil from is Yamal Gas Progress etc.

Once you have found a seller, the next step is to negotiate and close a deal. There are four ways used for selling petroleum. They are namely FOB, TTT, TTO, and CIF. CIF means cost, insurance and freight. It is a method of selling petroleum where the seller does everything from loading and sending the crude oil to the place the buyer wants. This kind of method is usually hard to fit and most sellers do not like dealing this way. FOB fully means freight on board.

The most widely method used method for selling oil is TTO and TTT. TTO simply means tanker take over. In this method, the buyer takes over the vessel to his destination, offloads the crude oil and brings it back.

TTT simply means tanker to tanker. It requires the buyer to come with a tank while the oil is transshipped and everything is settled.

Payment for the product is usually through swift or wire transfer. This can either be done through bank to bank by means of MT799. Irrevocable of letter of credit may also be used for payment etc.

Once you have bought the product, transfer the crude to your storage tank and relax. Continue to monitor the price of oil to see when it will increase. Conflicts between Iran and USA, and USA and Iran, and the one between South Korea and North Korea, and North Korea and the rest of other countries can cause the price of petroleum to increase. Conflicts in Niger Delta of Nigeria and Middle East as a whole can also cause the price of crude to skyrocket. Disasters like Hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico and surrounding cities in USA along the gulf may also increase the price of oil.

Once the price of crude increases, it is time to sell it off. If the price of a barrel of crude was at $ 78 and it increased to $ 100 or more, I believe you know how much you would have gained. Let say all the expenses you made and the price of a barrel of petroleum stands at $ 70 per barrel, then crude oil increases to $ 100 and you sell it off. The amount you will gain becomes $ 30 times 2,000,000 which will give you $ 60,000,000. This is cool bucks to make in a day. The way to find buyers for your petroleum is to write a letter with your company letterhead and POP (proof of product) to oil refineries. State the price you want to sell per barrel and anything to convince the oil refineries to buy your petroleum. This is tested and proven to deliver profitable type of oil trading.

Source by Ositadimma Muodozie